Mahalia Jackson


Roots and background

According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff,

the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang

a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. 

Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, and typically utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time, hymns and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, and Black spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", and strengthen communal bonds.

Most of the churches relied on hand-clapping and foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation.

Most of the singing was done a cappella.

ゴスペルとは「福音: 良い知らせ』の意味です。「God Spell / 神の言葉」

を語源とします。アメリカのブラックゴスペルは、よくクリスチャンによって歌われています。現在のアフリカ系アメリカ人の先祖達により、18〜19世紀に作られた黒人霊歌(Negro Spirituals)がルーツとなっています。





​by Wikipedia

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